Coriander Seed

OTHER NAME :  Dhaniya, Dhana
BOTANICAL NAME : Coriandrum sativum
SYNONYMS : Cilantro
PART USED : Seed, Leaves


Coriander is an important spice crop having a prime position in flavouring food. The plant is a thin stemmed, small, bushy herb, 25 to 50 cm in height with many branches and umbels. Leaves are alternate, compound. The whole plant has a pleasant aroma. Inflorescence is a compound umbel comprises 5 smaller umbels. Fruit is globular, 3 to 4 mm diameter, when pressed break into two locules each having one seed. Fruit has delicate fragrance; seeds are pale white to light brown in colour.

The active ingredients of coriander are: Volatile oil (0.4 to 1.7%): main component D (+) linalool (Coriandrol 60-70%). Also includes borneol, p-cymene, alpha-pinene, camphor, geraniol, limonene. Fatty oil (13-21%): acid, oleic and linoleic. Furanocoumarins; umbelliferone, scopoletin.

The young plant is used for flavouring and garnishing curries and soups. The fruits (seeds) are widely used as condiments with or without roasting in the preparation of curry powders, sausages and seasonings. It is an important ingredient in the manufacture of food flavourings, in bakery products, meat products, soda & syrups, puddings, candy preserves and liquors. In medicines it is used as a carminative, refrigerant, diuretic, and aphrodisiac. In household medicines, it is used against seasonal fever, stomach disorders, and nausea. Coriander oil and oleoresins are primarily used in seasonings for sausages and other meat products.